I had a Raspberry Pi 3 running an Asterisk phone server. I wanted to make use of the “console” functionality of Asterisk. By setting up an audio console, I would be able to make a phone call to the console from any extension, and have whatever audio I speak from the extension play over the console speakers (sort of a paging function). In addition, by connecting a microphone, I would also be able listen to sounds in the room where the console is located from any extension.
On a regular Linux PC, the Asterisk console is automatically created using the sound card. However, the Raspberry Pi does not have built in sound. I considered a couple of different solutions to add sound. Dedicated hardware is available to add sound to a Raspberry Pi. However, since that solution is not a standard sound card, I figured it might be difficult to get working with Asterisk. And the hardware involved costs more than the Raspberry Pi itself! High-end sound would be overkill for my application. I still had 3 of the 4 USB ports available on the Raspberry Pi, and USB sound cards are cheap, so I decided to go that route. I needed to purchase a USB sound card that was compatible with Linux. I went with the UGREEN USB Audio Adapter. This particular USB audio card also has a short cable connected to the USB plug – thus ensuring that there is physical room left for existing and future USB hardware.
Using information mainly from the following tutorial, I was able to get sound (both speaker and microphone) working from the Linux command line.
Once this was done, I needed to get Asterisk to recognize this sound card. I edited the modules.conf file for Asterisk to enable Alsa sound. However, there was an issue with the load order of the modules. The module that handles the console driver was getting loaded before the the sound modules were loaded. Eventually, I figured out that what I needed to do was pre-load the Alsa module, using the following command in modules.conf:
preload => chan_alsa.so
I found it was also necessary to use the “plughw:” Alsa device for the console, instead of the normal “hw:” device. This is because Asterisk requires certain specific sampling rates. My inexpensive usb sound card did not offer these specific rates, resulting in distorted and choppy audio. Using the “plughw” device allows the Raspberry Pi itself to resample the audio going in and out of the sound card to match the sampling rates required by Asterisk.
I connected a standard set of amplified PC speakers and a standard PC microphone to the USB sound card. In the Asterisk extensions.conf file, I programmed an extension to connect to the console device.
This results in a working setup. I can dial the extension of the Asterisk console from any phone on my system, and make paging announcements over the connected speakers. I am also able to hear sounds in the room where the console is located through the phone.
While the sound quality of the paging audio is fine, I was disappointed in the quality of sound picked up from the microphone. There is a noticeable amount of hum present. Not enough to make the setup unusable, but enough to be annoying. I suspect that the hum is coming from the USB power supply that I am using to power the Raspberry Pi. Even though I am using a high-current USB supply designed specifically to power a Raspberry Pi, I suspect it still does not have as good of filtering as the power supply in a regular PC. Though too small to be noticeable in the strong signal associated with the speaker output, the ripple from this power supply is likely enough to be significant for the small audio signal associated with the microphone. A possible solution would be to use a USB power supply with better filtering to power the Raspberry Pi.